The Universe is Hostile to Computers

2021 ж. 31 Там.
10 221 036 Рет қаралды

Tiny particles from distant galaxies have caused plane accidents, election interference and game glitches. This video is sponsored by Brilliant. The first 200 people to sign up via brilliant.org/veritasium get 20% off a yearly subscription.

This video was inspired by the RadioLab Podcast "Bit Flip" ve42.co/BF -- they're brilliant science storytellers.

A Huge thanks to Dr Leif Scheick, Calla Cofield and the JPL Media Relations Team.

Thanks to Col Chris Hadfield. Check out his book: chrishadfield.ca/books/

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References:
J. F. Ziegler, "Terrestrial cosmic rays," in IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 19-39, Jan. 1996, doi: 10.1147/rd.401.0019. -- ve42.co/Ziegler1996

D. Binder, E. C. Smith and A. B. Holman, "Satellite Anomalies from Galactic Cosmic Rays," in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 2675-2680, Dec. 1975, doi: 10.1109/TNS.1975.4328188 ve42.co/Binder1975

Ziegler, J. F., & Lanford, W. A. (1979). Effect of cosmic rays on computer memories. Science, 206(4420), 776-788 ve42.co/Ziegler1979

Drury, L. O. C. (2012). Origin of cosmic rays. Astroparticle Physics, 39, 52-60. ve42.co/Drury2012

Hess, V. (2018). On the observations of the penetrating radiation during seven balloon flights. arXiv preprint arXiv:1808.02927. -- ve42.co/Hess2018

Carlson, P., & De Angelis, A. (2011). Nationalism and internationalism in science: the case of the discovery of cosmic rays. The European Physical Journal H, 35(4), 309-329. -- ve42.co/Carlson2011

Höeffgen, S. K., Metzger, S., & Steffens, M. (2020). Investigating the effects of cosmic rays on space electronics. Frontiers in Physics, 8, 318. -- ve42.co/Hoeffgen2020

Edmonds, L. D., Barnes, C. E., & Scheick, L. Z. (2000). An introduction to space radiation effects on microelectronics. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. -- ve42.co/Edmonds2000

NASA Mars 2020 website covering the specifications of the Perseverance Rover ve42.co/RoverBrains

Australian Government Australian Transport Safety Bureau report on QF72 -- ve42.co/ASTBQantas

Australian Government Australian Transport Safety Bureau summary on QF72 -- ve42.co/ASTBQantas2

Great Blog post about QF72 -- ve42.co/DempseyQantas

Michael Barr's report on the Toyota acceleration issue -- ve42.co/Barr2015

NASA's Report on Toyota -- ve42.co/NASAToyota

T. C. May and M. H. Woods, "A New Physical Mechanism for Soft Errors in Dynamic Memories," 16th International Reliability Physics Symposium, 1978, pp. 33-40, doi: 10.1109/IRPS.1978.362815. -- ve42.co/May1978

P. M. O'Neill and G. D. Badhwar, "Single event upsets for Space Shuttle flights of new general purpose computer memory devices," in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1755-1764, Oct. 1994, doi: 10.1109/23.317386. -- ve42.co/ONeill1994

Wikipedia about radiation hardening -- ve42.co/RadHardening

Toward Monitoring Fault-Tolerant Embedded
Systems (Extended Abstract) -- ve42.co/Goodloe2009

Article about speed run -- ve42.co/BurttSpeedrun

Article about speed run -- ve42.co/BountySpeedrun

Article about redundant systems in spaceflight -- ve42.co/NASAComputers

Article about the PowerPC750 -- ve42.co/Wener-FlignerNASA

Fuglesang C, Narici L, Picozza P, Sannita WG. Phosphenes in low earth orbit: survey responses from 59 astronauts. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2006 Apr;77(4):449-52. PMID: 16676658. -- ve42.co/Fuglesang2006

Good article about Cosmic Rays causing flashes -- ve42.co/AtkinsonEye

Good article about radiation resistance -- ve42.co/RoverResistance

Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Paul Peijzel, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Sam Lutfi, MJP, Gnare, Nick DiCandilo, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

Written by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev
Animation by Iván Tello, Mike Radjabov, Fabio Albertelli, Jakub Misiek and Charlie Davies
SFX by Shaun Clifford
Filmed by Derek Muller, Raquel Nuno, and Emily Zhang
Edited by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev
SFX by Shaun Clifford
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Rover Footage From NASA/JPL-Caltech
QF72 footage from the Smithsonian channel kzworld.info/throw/bejne/gGSma7dytXmjenM
SM64 footage from ve42.co/pannenkoek2012
Music from Epidemic Sound
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Emily Zhang

Пікірлер
  • Happen in the United States with Biden and trump Lots of states still don't want to do audits

    Starving ZombieStarving Zombie2 сағат бұрын
  • Couldn't this problem be solved by requiring any critical state change have 2 bits flipped instead of just one? That would radically reduce the probability of a catastrophic event

    Hip GnosisHip Gnosis3 сағат бұрын
  • I hope that happens to my bank account... From few hundreds goes to a million

    Jewelson NoronhaJewelson Noronha5 сағат бұрын
  • A few years ago my wife and I had an unusual experience; a flash of light hit us at the same time in the same way. The light for the smallest of instances seemed to come from the upper right above our eyes, through and across to the bottom of the left eye. It hurt. And we both felt it at the same time the same way.

    Ramon de TorresRamon de Torres6 сағат бұрын
  • "All because of the same invisible phenomenon that permeates the universe." GASP! Democrats are everywhere. That same thing happened in 2020 in the US.

    Ramon de TorresRamon de Torres6 сағат бұрын
    • Cringe

      OlssonOlsson2 сағат бұрын
  • One of the best videos on KZworld

    Patel RajeshbhaiPatel Rajeshbhai13 сағат бұрын
  • Funnily enough this crash happened to me on the last video I watched

    PNOplayerPNOplayer14 сағат бұрын
  • This explains why everyone does more damage than you in shooters with the same or weaker gun and even hit shots they never hit

    ( - . -)( - . -)18 сағат бұрын
  • So basically "What if" Ultron was doomed as soon as he left earth's orbit.

    mysterymanphotomysterymanphoto20 сағат бұрын
  • wait... they come from supernovae EVERYONE GRAB YOUR N64 CONSOLES WERE GONNA UPWARP TO THE FINAL BOWSER USING COSMIC RAYS, SCHEDULED SPEEDRUN COSMIC RAYS%

    s1nblitzs1nblitz21 сағат бұрын
  • This looks like a significant discovery to something so fundamental to our lives and a base to everything. Will non binary language computers solve this problem?

    Shiva RanabhatShiva RanabhatКүн бұрын
  • The billowy hardboard mainly wrap because flame consequentially heat amongst a charming servant. lively, sticky hope

    Chui Throwaway8Chui Throwaway8Күн бұрын
  • Dear God, I need a bit flip to send my bank account balance shooting straight to the ionosphere. Now, please.

    Lorenz BarmanLorenz BarmanКүн бұрын
  • Watching this completely blew my mind and made me realise how little control we actually have sometimes. Crazy stuff

    MeMateBigDaveMeMateBigDaveКүн бұрын
  • I would never trust in magnetic cards also ...

    Yuri RodriguesYuri RodriguesКүн бұрын
  • Imagine a particle-induced-transistor-flip happening to your bank account

    Internet ExplorerInternet ExplorerКүн бұрын
  • just lost trust from computers-

    In3rt1aIn3rt1aКүн бұрын
  • the crash sound effect scared me so bad😭

    isabella ashbyisabella ashbyКүн бұрын
  • 0:19 THE STATUE THE STATUE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    Your MomYour MomКүн бұрын
  • The crabby brass puzzlingly supply because digger hemperly drop vice a jazzy rainbow. keen, gleaming italian

    Justin JinJustin JinКүн бұрын
  • Astrologists will suck as hell if they watch this video: "tell me more about stars a billion and billions there from here don't make diference in your life"

    Rapiere GridoroRapiere GridoroКүн бұрын
  • Don't let Bolsonaro see this video

    Rapiere GridoroRapiere GridoroКүн бұрын
  • THIS IS THE BEST!!! 💚💚💚

    ton tonton tonКүн бұрын
  • @4:47, if it can change to an ""on" state, it stands to reason this could also be true for the "off". god i love using science and mathematics and logic against the very science and mathematics and logic.

    johnnytheprickjohnnytheprickКүн бұрын
  • What an ending !! Love it! :D

    Rafael MendozaRafael Mendoza2 күн бұрын
  • Was this video negatively affected by a bit flip? How would we know? Would it be experienced as a momentary visual or auditory glitch? ; )

    Mark KaradimosMark Karadimos2 күн бұрын
  • Screw you for that blue screen, scared me. Great video though

    TsmartPDXTsmartPDX2 күн бұрын
  • That is power of God.

    Sarthak ShuklaSarthak Shukla2 күн бұрын
  • crashed 250modded skyrim hundreds of times, 1 of them mustve been caused by supernova

    Marco WulurMarco Wulur2 күн бұрын
  • rubbish. i was already subscribed.

    johnnytheprickjohnnytheprick2 күн бұрын
  • 53k, or, 53,000 in metric notation, or, 53.000 in Asian cultures...... comments? if youre reading this, id love to talk to you...

    johnnytheprickjohnnytheprick2 күн бұрын
  • The Universe voted for her.

    VexcariusVexcarius2 күн бұрын
  • Imagine explaining to a police officer why your car was speeding... Would he write your explanation in his report? You would have to spell these words for him.

    John La MarcaJohn La Marca2 күн бұрын
  • Fantastic!

    fanofCOHfanofCOH2 күн бұрын
  • This will be a perfect conversation topic next time someone tries to make small talk with me on a flight

    RexisRexis2 күн бұрын
  • A simple GPS low cost like U$ 100,00 would solve this kind of problem. OK, it doesn't consider the wind speed but 10 % errors by GPS will avoid a disaster, like an iced pitot tube or other major redundances conflicts in avionics that occurs with high frequency on fatal disasters.

    FischerFischer2 күн бұрын
  • Title sounds like an AI conspiracy-theory.

    Gosdenx7Gosdenx73 күн бұрын
  • The time of the SEU event would be interesting because on that day an 80-ton rock TC3 exploded over a remote area in Sudan at 37 km altitude.

    Anne FrançoiseAnne Françoise3 күн бұрын
  • ***Bitcoiners*** 👁️👄👁️?

    First Name Last NameFirst Name Last Name3 күн бұрын
  • Kudos to you, Derek. You have the uncanny ability to present facts in a manner the average human being can understand. All of your content I've watched so far, is very well researched and very well presented! Please do continue!!!

    Frank J. HoffmannFrank J. Hoffmann3 күн бұрын
  • How do you say Amen in halal?

    Rafal GoraRafal Gora3 күн бұрын
  • Problem solving is a perishable skill, hmm EPIPHANY, and , I FIRST LIKED THE VIDEO, ❤️, and then watched the vid.. also i always thought wearing gemstones is faux pass, now, am getting new ideas..

    amanvijay jindalamanvijay jindal3 күн бұрын
  • All this is so complex and too complicated. I will settle for silence of the brain or mind or absence of unnecessary thoughts.

    Cristoval Jesús AmadoCristoval Jesús Amado3 күн бұрын
    • What

      OlssonOlsson2 сағат бұрын
  • Imagine being on a hot air balloon during an eclipse. Must be such a life changing experience. I wanna do this.

    Sneh The SheepSneh The Sheep3 күн бұрын
  • That'd good to know I can blame BSoDs on the universe and not the no no videos

    Beau ChangBeau Chang3 күн бұрын
  • Amazing !

    Milton Kiko BolonhaMilton Kiko Bolonha3 күн бұрын
  • After watching the full video, I just have one question.............what?

    Living Life UnchainedLiving Life Unchained3 күн бұрын
  • DOTA TEABAG MY GUY

    Dom FranceDom France3 күн бұрын
  • ...that depends on your definition of a computer.

    touristguy87touristguy873 күн бұрын
  • What about the universe acting as a mega quantum super computer as in the holographic universe? Does the energy of our consciousness effect & perhaps influence our programmed reality?

    booyakashaboybooyakashaboy3 күн бұрын
  • China will grow larger. I can hack into this facility.

    ErdemErdem3 күн бұрын
  • I wonder when we start making 1nm transistors computer cases will need to be made from 5cm thick lead sheets or equivalent shielding.

    FvckYoutube'sCensorshipAndTheirAdBuyers UseAdblockFvckYoutube'sCensorshipAndTheirAdBuyers UseAdblock3 күн бұрын
  • Could a blue screen be cosmic? Sure, but MS code sucks so bad even in this universe its guaranteed it is their code. CRC and TMR are some methods to combat these issues. While not perfect I'm going to call BS on things like the planes and the games freaking out due to this. Your ordinary computer does CRC etc.

    NN4 күн бұрын
  • Maybe you could make a video about how cosmic radiation affect any possible mission to mars...

    Alexandr TcacencoAlexandr Tcacenco4 күн бұрын
  • It feels like there has been a while since I've watched a video this good. Now a DIY Cloud Chamber so we can watch those amazing particles at home =)

    Zar KaztickZar Kaztick4 күн бұрын
  • Oh god. I really was shocked and thought there was a cosmic disturbance at the end of the video 😂

    Madan MMadan M4 күн бұрын
  • Universe was rooting for Maria

    Srinagar RoadsSrinagar Roads4 күн бұрын
  • Wow! How fascinating that a single radioactive particle can have a major impact on our technology which is based on electromagnetic rays! Love your videos so much Veritasium :)

    Novel ScienceNovel Science4 күн бұрын
  • Just wait till 2024 comes.🤣🤣🤣

    Doug ManninenDoug Manninen4 күн бұрын
  • I dont believe any of this. Just smoke and mirrors for something else.😉

    Free-bird RockerFree-bird Rocker4 күн бұрын
  • Incredible video, amazing work, thank you!

    Baptiste LongèreBaptiste Longère4 күн бұрын
  • cosmic ray interference has been well know for ages. I remember calculating the expected number of events per year per device as a homework problem when I was taking Physics in the 90s

    The King in YellowThe King in Yellow4 күн бұрын
  • Amazing video, keep it up

    Puff PuffPuff Puff5 күн бұрын
  • so because we are anti solar and pro nuclear is why

    EPIC EBIKESEPIC EBIKES5 күн бұрын
  • “Received more votes than was mathematically possible” sounds familiar. The most unpopular president in recent history got the most votes in history. But we’re not allowed to talk about it or even audit the machines like Belgium. Oh well.

    Scott kasperScott kasper5 күн бұрын
  • I like the video👍

    Science and EngineeringScience and Engineering5 күн бұрын
  • I need a neutron emitter now

    Taqi TahmidTaqi Tahmid5 күн бұрын
  • vertasium : bit flips cause blue screen cosic rays to my pc : os anyways i started blasting

    Budgie animationBudgie animation5 күн бұрын
  • "A plane plummets out of the sky" me: oh no :O

    elleelle5 күн бұрын
  • This is why we need election audit.

    G K R.G K R.5 күн бұрын
  • What is the chance of multiple bits flipped the same way on the same night nationwide? Coincident?

    G K R.G K R.5 күн бұрын
  • We finally have a clue why multiple bits flipped the same way on the same night nationwide...let's blame the universe...

    G K R.G K R.5 күн бұрын
  • complettely amazed as always. thanks for share your aknowledge

    Jeferson MartinezJeferson Martinez5 күн бұрын
  • The cooperative question conversly reach because brochure socioeconomically interrupt following a labored reading. daily, beneficial anthony

    Chui Throwaway8Chui Throwaway85 күн бұрын
  • Because the true radiation is on SUN and on it's rail...

    Charismatos LabiskunCharismatos Labiskun5 күн бұрын
  • This is super cool! Oh also, hi danny lol!

    pelaajahackspelaajahacks6 күн бұрын
    • A

      pelaajahackspelaajahacks6 күн бұрын
  • This video really was way more than my expectations...

    kartikey bartwalkartikey bartwal6 күн бұрын
  • Who else is coming from tech icon...?

    Aditya GuptaAditya Gupta6 күн бұрын
  • So you're telling me all it takes is a bit flip for Skynet to start?

    John DoeJohn Doe6 күн бұрын
  • How would they even breathe at 5k meters?

    SpeedwaySpeedway6 күн бұрын
    • By expanding their lungs

      OlssonOlsson2 сағат бұрын
  • If the words you said in the video were seen as subtitles on the screen. It would have been easy to understand. Thank you, from Bangladesh.

    Md Khurshed AlamMd Khurshed Alam6 күн бұрын
    • Turn on subtitles then, C is a shortcut for it

      OlssonOlsson2 сағат бұрын
  • Bitcoin is not safe.

    tiny eartiny ear6 күн бұрын
  • I wonder how computers will react in 20 years when components are even smaller. I swear, they will get to the point you'll need a special robotic pen to place them, and a machine just to align the circuit board up so that the pins will go in.

    Kieran BrownKieran Brown6 күн бұрын
  • "runs dead guys, supernova happened 3,918,193,420,069 light-years away"

    -45--45-6 күн бұрын
  • Now i can litrally blame the universe for my misfortunes

    Coaly boiCoaly boi7 күн бұрын
  • Trump may be interested in this video…

    BhatDaalBhatDaal7 күн бұрын
  • Dream didn't cheat, he just does runs with a block of uranium next to his computer.

    Ian SwitzerIan Switzer7 күн бұрын
  • Thanks for this! Who would have guessed...

    hey worldhey world7 күн бұрын
  • Geeze, please do not show the my pillow guy this video! PLEASE!!!

    Sean BrooksSean Brooks7 күн бұрын
  • I have always wondered about what happened to that plane. I used to live in Exmouth, Western Australia, and during my time there i was engaged in an emergency situation due to my volunteer involvement with the State Emergency Service. I was part of the response call to that planes emergency landing at what is primarily (i think) a small-medium sized aircraft and helicopter airport, aka, Learmonth. All* cameras of crew were seized by "authority", and as emergency services we were instructed that photography was not allowed possibly even illegal. Soo, when the media teams came to town hours later, photo's like the two shown in this video, were highly sought after. I can attest to the fact that a lady on the toilet when the initial drop happened, landed back on the toilet with enough force to break the seat and in a fashion, impale her onto it. Another lady, whom i beleive may have even been pregnant at the time, smashed her head into the overhead lockers with enough force to scallop a 50mm wide piece of her scalp. it looked like her long hair had grown out of a crack in the plastic above her. For reference, Exmouth (the town to which Learmonth Airport is attached) is a small fishing/naval and seasonal tourist town situated about halfway up the massive coast of Western Australia. Its population according to census data some 8 years later, has the figure at 2514, so to have nearly 200 people needing urgent medical assistance, "RIGHT NOW" as it were, was an impressive undertaking. I have more photos on a long dead sony walkman phone, they will stay that way i think. Can I get a AMEN, for the work that ALL Service Men and Women, and "First Responders" give of themselves for the rest of us, for they perform the work of giants and are truly mighty. "Døyr fe, døyr frender Døyr sjølv det sama Eg veit et som aldreg døyr dom om daudan kvar"

    APLACEMARKED XAPLACEMARKED X7 күн бұрын
  • *Easy Voting Machine Fix* Each vote that is cast on the computer screen, is also printed onto a paper ballot. You can see who you voted for on the paper ballot. Take that paper ballot and drop it into the box. If the computer and all the paper ballot numbers do not match, then the votes are not being recorded correctly. Also, keep a running tally of the total votes for each candidate, if the votes jump by 4096 votes there may have been a bit flip. With a magnetic card, you can not see your vote. If you had voted for Candidate A and it recorded Candidate B, you won't see that on a Magnetic card but you will see it on a Paper Ballot.

    C SC S7 күн бұрын
  • Really, this channels content is too good

    Pedro PulidoPedro Pulido7 күн бұрын
  • Mario 64 is the only few N64 games that hold up well in modern times, Gameplay the second reason to the main reason.

    Philip MurphyPhilip Murphy7 күн бұрын
  • There is also radiation hard silicon.

    Markus E.Markus E.8 күн бұрын
  • I knew this

    Verse IntrovertVerse Introvert8 күн бұрын
  • And the other reason the bit flip happened was likely use of consumer computers instead of server hardware using ECC RAM.... So no detection of the flip either.

    Roland RobertsRoland Roberts8 күн бұрын
  • Imaging calling out to NASA, just for them to tell you, your drivers are to dump and confuse brake and gas pedal xD

    monky2k6monky2k68 күн бұрын
  • wait a sec dont computers produce radiation too

    cyber0megacyber0mega8 күн бұрын
  • 4096 votes you say? Well I can instantly tell you that it's probably some sort of overflow/underflow error. Edit: Yeaaah... this explanation is hypothetical black-swan tier. Sure, it could happen. Probabilistically speaking, anything at all *could* happen, as far as we know. Realistically speaking, most of those things won't happen, ever. Realistically speaking, it's far more likely that someone messed up at some step of composing the system in a way that didn't show up the second time, or someone interfered with the proper operation of the system, maliciously or accidentally.

    Ern de CheErn de Che8 күн бұрын
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